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RG1355.AM:  James Henry Red Cloud, 1879-1960

Papers:  1911-1959; 1992

Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota:  Spokesman for Native American rights

Size:  0.25 cu.ft.; 1 box


James Henry Red Cloud was born at the Pine Ridge Agency, South Dakota, in August 1879. His father, Jack Red Cloud, was the only married son of the illustrious Chief Red Cloud. His mother was Her Roan Horse. James H. Red Cloud went to school at the Holy Rosary Mission for two years. He spent most of his life on the Pine Ridge Reservation. His wife, Dealie, was the daughter of Red Feather, whose sister was married to Chief Crazy Horse. James H. Red Cloud died in 1960.


This collection is arranged in four series: 1) Correspondence, 1929-1959 and 1992; 2) Diaries, 1953 and 1959; 3) Sioux Black Hills Council Minutes, 1911 and 1918; and 4) Miscellany. This material relates to James H. Red Cloud’s efforts to improve conditions for the Sioux people. His activities are reflected most clearly in the correspondence that he wrote to A.E. Sheldon of the Nebraska State Historical Society, found in Series 1, and in the Minutes of the Sioux Black Hills Council of Series 2. (It is unclear whether James H. Red Cloud or Jack Red Cloud was a Pine Ridge Reservation representative on this council, as the listed name is illegible.)

The Sioux Black Hills Council alleged that the Black Hills Treaty of 1876 was executed illegally and Red Cloud’s letters uphold this view. As president of the Oglala Sioux Tribal Council in 1943, Red Cloud argued against the abolishment of the U. S. Indian Bureau. Some of the letters are in typed transcript form. A letter dated March 25, 1992, from Brigitte Long-Murdock to the Nebraska State Historical Society, describes some of the work Red Cloud did for his tribe. The Diaries, 1953 and 1959, of Series 3 are written in Lakota, as is a notebook in the Miscellany of Series 4. Of particular interest in the Miscellany is an essay by silent film cowboy star William S. Hart, “The American Indian,” which is inscribed to James H. Red Cloud.


Series 1 – Correspondence, 1929-1959 and 1992

Box 1


  1. 1929-1959 and 1992

Series 2 – Sioux Black Hills Council Minutes, 1911 and 1918

  1. January 27 – February 1, 1911

  2. April 4 – 6, 1918

Series 3 – Diaries, 1953 and 1959

  1. 1953 and 1959

Series 4 – Miscellany

  1. “The American Indian” by William S. Hart, inscribed to James H. Red Cloud

  2. Notebook written in Lakota


Subject headings:

Black Hills (South Dakota) — History

Hart, William S., 1864-1946

Indians of North America — Government relations

Indians of North America — Treaties

Red Cloud, 1822-1909

Red Cloud, Jack, 1858-1918

Red Cloud, James Henry, 1879-1960

Siouan Indians

Sioux Black Hills Council

U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs

U.S. Indian Bureau


Revised TMM       05-04-2007